Making Chainmail at an Iron Works Through History

One of the blacksmith’s working in an armory would have been called an armorer. Armor is defined as a protective covering. The coverings began as thick leather which led to large thick rings being sewn onto a leather shirt. Someone found out that if they linked the rings they created a stronger more protective type of armor. Plate armor was next to be made and used but this article will focus on the linked rings known as mail or chainmail. Those that make objects out of metal are called blacksmiths. Blacksmiths at iron works in Indianapolis can make chainmail.

Chainmail Clothing for a Knight of the Crusades

Historically, the wealthy were the only ones that could afford chainmail. The knights of the Crusades required chainmail to cover their bodies. The hauberk was a chainmail shirt that went to the knees. Chausses were the chainmail covering for the legs down to the feet. Sabatons covered the foot from the heel to the toe and were sometimes pointed. To protect the head, chainmail was made into a hood that covered the head and some of the neck. Camail was a chainmail collar that was attached to the bottom of the helmet. Mitons protected the hands and some of the lower arm. Under the chainmail was usually a padded undergarment that helped cushion the blows.

The Making of the Rings

Originally the rings were punched out of sheet metal or made from wire. To get the wire to the size they needed, wrought iron was hammered into plates and then thin pieces were cut from the plates. These thin pieces were then pulled through holes in a draw plate many times until they got to the size that was needed. A mandrel or wrapping rod is what the thin metal was inserted into and wrapped around. The end result when taken off the mandrel was a coiled wire. After slipping the coil off the wire the coils were then cut into rings one as a time. The rings were then pressed together, riveted or welded. To rivet them one end of the cut ring was flattened and the other was pierced to make a hole. A rivet was then inserted and secured.

Assembling the Rings Together

Chainmail pieces were fashioned differently for each different body part they were intended for. Where vital organs needed to be protected more rings were concentrated in that area. In places on the body that needed less protection fewer rings were used. The four-in-one pattern was the most common pattern used in the chainmail that has been found to date. The advantages of chainmail for a warrior is that it was easy to repair, and was flexible for ease of movement.

Plated Armor and the Elves

Eventually, the weapons used against chainmail could easily pierce it and plated armor became necessary. The chainmail was still worn underneath the plated armor for protection where the plates couldn’t reach. Now, craftsmen who produce iron works in Indianapolis can make beautiful chainmail in a variety of patterns. The making of chainmail from mithril, like the one in the works of Tolkien, should probably be left to the elves.

Learning How To Motivate Kids

The question of how to motivate kids seems to be a common one in recent years. Kids have every convenience imaginable, and this has led some of them to lose interest in being challenged. Many kids lack the satisfaction of accomplishment because they do not have to work very hard for everyday successes. They are so accustomed to fast resolutions and unrealistic outcomes that when life does offer significant challenges, they sometimes lack the ability to stay focused on a goal. When their problems demand serious effort and time, they have often been conditioned by computers, cell phones, television, and movies to expect quick solutions. It is understandable that they cannot stay motivated long enough to keep trying.

Positive reinforcement has always been an important tool for the question of how to motivate kids. Children learn valuable life lessons as a result of positive and negative feedback. They need to know that they are capable and lovable. When these messages are clear, they feel that they can at least try. When parents and teachers reward children for their positive behavior, rather than focus on their negative acts, kids get the message that it is better to keep trying hard and working productively. This leads to the question of incentives and rewards. Parents who want to know how to motivate kids sometimes turn to monetary rewards or expensive gifts to keep their kids going. This can sometimes be counter-productive because children can quickly become conditioned to give an effort only when there is a tangible reward in their future. On the other hand, when rewards are given when they are not expected, children learn that a job well-done sometimes comes with a bonus. Parents should carefully weigh the pros and cons of automatically giving kids rewards to motivate them.

When considering the idea of how to motivate kids, it is important to understand the importance of realistic expectations. Setting the bar high is good because it teaches kids the importance of striving for something noteworthy. However, parents should think realistically about their kids’ abilities and natural talents before they impose harsh and unattainable standards. If a child has average intelligence and puts forth an honest effort in school, his parents would be wise to applaud his efforts instead of questioning why he did not do better. Children should be challenged, but the challenges should be realistic. Praise is critical. Children who are praised for their small triumphs are usually motivated to attempt harder tasks and reach for higher goals. Parental attendance at sporting events, school programs, and music recitals gives kids the message that their activities and efforts are as important as anything else their parents may have going on in their lives. Children constantly need to be built up through words and actions. The parents who most successfully answer the question of how to motivate kids are generally those who serve as positive role models.

Kids are smart, and they almost always realize when parents tell them to behave a certain way, but then live a different standard. Parents who have a strong personal work ethic do more to motivate their children to work hard than those who are lazy and refuse to give life much effort. Parents who show excitement for their children’s interests can provide a critical service in their children’s lives. When parents get excited over a rudimentary drawing, it gives the child the message that he should keep drawing. Kids need someone in their corner, and this means that parents also need to teach their children how to deal with failure and disappointment. This can be very challenging, and parents can sometimes lose a valuable teaching moment if they try to buy their children’s happiness instead of teaching them to cope.

Seeking Businesses With Stainless Steel Fasteners

Many people find themselves wondering about what pieces of equipment are necessary in order to operate study, reliable machinery in settings such as factories or large warehouses. In these settings, it is difficult to imagine the type of tools strong enough to operate for long hours and at such a fast pace. Knowing the strength of the ordinary nails, screws and bolts that many of us use, makes it hard to believe that they are the same tools used in these settings. With such vital machinery operating in important businesses and factories, it is interesting to consider the types of equipment that may be used. Upon doing some quick reviewing online, one may find websites that specialize in stainless steel fasteners

Stainless steel fasteners are a specialized type of fastener that are utilized in projects that require the durability of stainless steel. Different types of stainless steel fasteners could be all types of screws, nuts and bolts. With material that is so specialized for durability, one may begin to wonder where they could purchase such miraculous tools. By simply doing some research online, one can find that there are many online retailers that specialize in stainless steel fasteners. Some of these places can have bulk, packaged or kitted inventory on their shelves. They can have both specialty and standard stainless steel types of fasteners, and extremely competitive pricing. Many of these places have an incredible inventory that has up to date products and wonderful options for all types of construction project. Because this requires some vast knowledge, choosing a retailer with vast knowledge is important. With an educated and knowledgeable staff, one can trust that they are getting the right product for their project.

Construction projects can be quite demanding and require a large amount of stainless steel fasteners. This is why choosing a retailer with a large inventory and options to purchase in bulk is important. One important consideration when dealing with online retailers, or even offline retailers, is to ask specific questions and requirements before making any purchases. By finding a company that will offer their guidance and knowledgeable advice, one can be certain they are making the right choice. Once one is ready to purchase their fasteners, they can request a current and competitive quotation. Whether you are a new customer or a frequent buyer, an account can be set up with many of these online retailers, to make purchases quick and easy. Because there are so many different types of stainless steel fasteners, it can be difficult to know which is the right one for your specific construction project.

Extensive inventories can make choices difficult. There are options such as bronze, brass, hot dip galvanized, nylon, aluminum and even silicon. With such a wide variety, many people do not know where to begin. This is why having a staff with expertise is crucial. When finding an online retailer, it is important that this staff is available to be reached at any time of day, to answer any and all questions. The fact is that construction projects are extremely detailed and extensive. By choosing the wrong equipment to work with, one is setting their project up for failure.

Many projects require individuals’ extreme attention and devotion. By choosing the right materials the first time, they can avoid running into larger problems with their materials in the future. One way to avoid this is by utilizing stainless steel fasteners. By using this material, one can be certain they have the durability and strength of a material that can be trusted. By seeking advice of professional staffs, and educating yourself through the internet, projects can be completed with absolute confidence.

Uses Of Used Sandblast Equipment

For people who own cleaning companies or construction companies, used sandblast equipment can be a vital part of their business activities. Sandblasting equipment can be employed to perform simple cleaning tasks, such as removing oil stains from pavement, or it can be used for complicated jobs, such as cleaning the metal of large outdoor sculptures. Sandblasting equipment can often remove debris that may not be removed by other means. Nevertheless, new sandblasting equipment can be extremely expensive. People who would like to own sandblasting equipment should consider purchasing used sandblast equipment.

Campbell Hausfeld AT1251 30-Pound Capacity Sandblaster

Used equipment can provide the same functionality as new equipment. Yet, the price of used sandblast equipment is much less. The sandblasting process uses small particulates to clean or strip outer dirt and grime from a designated surface. The particles are propelled by air that is ejected from the sandblasting equipment. At one time, sandblasting equipment propelled sand. Nowadays, the use of sand is less common due to the lung problems that can be caused by breathing tiny particles of sand. Aluminum oxide particulates, steel particles or crushed walnut shells are now frequently used as abrasives. Some people even use tiny pieces of coconut shells for sandblasting. Sandblasting equipment includes a special container, which is called a “pot.” The pot contains and discharges the abrasives that are used to sandblast.

There are two kinds of pots utilized in sandblast equipment. The first type is a pressurized pot. The second kind of pot is a siphon system pot, which allows sand to be siphoned through a hose before being blasted out of the equipment. Both types of pots require air compression to work properly. New or used sandblast equipment may be used to clean metal, People who choose to restore old cars may use a sandblaster to strip away rust and other debris before a vehicle is repainted. Used sandblast equipment can even remove varnish from wood.

Used sandblast equipment is not only cost-effective due to its reduced price. Used sandblast equipment lowers labor costs. The amount of time needed to prepare residential or commercial structures for painting is much less with sandblasting. People who choose to scrape or sand a building will spend long hours completing the task. Sandblasters can even be used to prepare newly coated surfaces for a final coat. Slippery coatings, such as polyurethane, may require sanding between coats. The amount money spent to sandblast a home, building or piece of machinery will depend on the amount of sandblasting required. Small sandblasting jobs will not require as much time or expense as large jobs. If a person decides to hire a sandblasting company instead of purchasing used sandblast equipment, he can expect to pay about $55 per hour for labor. The labor for special services that require special abrasives or include an unusual amount of preparation can cost about $75 per hour. In addition, the materials needed for sandblasting are not free. People who use the services of a sandblasting company can still expect to pay approximately $50 for a 50-pound bag of sandblasting particles.

Small jobs usually require only one bag of abrasives. However, large jobs can require several bags. Used sandblast equipment can remove oxidation debris from metal, strip away chemical residue or clear mold from surfaces just as well as new sandblast equipment can. It can even add texture to a surface or roughen a surface for future coatings of paint. However, the price of used sandblast equipment is usually much less than that of new equipment. Like new sandblast equipment, used equipment is often designed to operate nonstop for a designated period. After the period has elapsed, the sandblasting operation ceases. The auto-stop feature helps ensure that the equipment is operated safely.

Smart Features Of Quality Watch Winders

Low-end watch winders are basically boxes with slow-turning motors attached to them. Mid-range and high-end watch winders come with a number of options to regulate the speed, direction and continuity of automatic watches. These features are more than luxuries. They keep watches from being over-wound. Let’s look at watch winder operations in a little more detail.

Understanding Watch Winders

An automatic watch winder, usually just called a watch winder or watch rotator, keeps automatic watches ticking. Most of the watches found in drugstores and discount retail stores are battery powered. Automatic watches, on the other hand, are powered by human motion, so that when they’re worn for as little as a few minutes a day, the mainspring gets enough kinetic energy to drive the gears.

Since a watch collector can’t wear more than one watch at a time, other watches in the collection need to be kept moving to prevent them from winding down. Watch winders gradually turn watches over the course of the day.

Key Operational Features

The main risk involved with bad watch rotators is over-winding, where the mainspring receives too much wear. Here are the features the best watch winders offer to counteract the danger of over-winding:

  • Bidirectional rotation. Unlike cheap winders, quality winders aren’t limited to clockwise rotation. They can be set to run counterclockwise, or run in both directions. Some fully rotate a few hundred turns per day in one direction, then do the same in the opposite direction. Some swing back and forth instead. More advanced watch winders do both.
  • Speed variation. Different watch mechanics have different sensitivities. A manufacturer might recommend 1800 turns per day for one watch to keep its time accurate, while another watch would be over-wound at anything above 900 TPD. Cheap watch winders lack adjustable speed settings.
  • Timer settings. Humans don’t move the watches they wear all day; they provide irregular movement. Excessive movement would result in excessive winding, so quality watch winders address this with an integrated timer that stops the winding after a few hours. Some even feature a timer that starts the winding after a few hours, so that the mainspring has time to unwind any excess tension it has accumulated if the watch has been recently worn.

You don’t have to spend a fortune to get most of these features. A single-watch winder over $150 will typically feature intermittent, bidirectional rotation. On the other hand, you should definitely avoid watch winders sold for under $100. These winders tend to lack the features above, and can’t regulate motion thoroughly enough to over-winding, which defeats the purpose of buying a watch winder.

What Is The Role Of A Casting Agent?

To a lot of people who are just starting out in the entertainment industry, the role of casting agencies is a bit of a mystery. What do they actually do and how do they help somebody get an acting job? Their role is actually quite straightforward. Like any sort of agent, they act as an intermediary between the person who is looking for a job in the entertainment industry and the industry itself. Normally, it is the casting director who liaises with the casting agent or a number of casting agents to find who they need.

Casting agents or talent agents don’t just find jobs for actors; they may represent musicians and models, authors, film directors, dancers and writers, all of whom may be involved at some point in the business of putting a film or play together. Agents are not always required. It’s always possible that somebody is so well known that they are contacted directly without having to go through an agent, but in many cases having an agent cuts out a lot of the communication and negotiation that goes on when somebody is being hired.

The casting agent receives a commission, which is a percentage of what the actor or person they are representing gets paid for a particular job. In the United States, where the entertainment industry is much larger than that in Britain, the agents used to be called “ten-percenters” because they traditionally got paid ten percent of the earnings of the actor.

Most agencies are licensed to carry out their agency work as they are often dealing with considerable amounts of money. Some agencies are operated on behalf of professional organisations or guilds but usually they are separate undertakings that are financially independent from the actors’ associations.

Casting agencies have, in fact, two sets of clients who they represent and they will normally try to make both parties happy at the same time. In this regard they behave like a lot of intermediaries in the business world. One could compare what they do to a real estate agent who acts on behalf of the seller of a house, for instance, and the potential buyers.

Agencies may be specialised in who they represent. Normally, the larger the agency is, the more specialised it is. Different actors may themselves specialise in the sort of work they normally do. Some just work for the commercial advertising industry while others concentrate on film or theatre. Others again may be just involved in television. These different industries tend to have separate networks of people who are influential in the way they operate and people are hired. It makes sense then that agencies themselves specialise in a particular field as a lot of the job of an agent involves contact with people in a particular network.

The agent works at selling the actor to a particular casting director so they need to be on top of what the requirements are for a particular production that might be taking place. Whatever field the actor is interested in involves auditions and the agent is instrumental in helping the actor to get represented at the audition. They will also be the ones that will present the resume or portfolio and the headshot or shots at the audition or prior meeting with the casting director.